Quelles sont les mises en scène et les représentations associées à "autochtonie" ? "authenticité"? "cultures"? Comment les artistes autochtones contemporains se positionnent-ils/elles quant aux questions identitaires ? Mots clés : Art, résistance, décolonisation.
520. Esthétique et histoire de l’art |500.A1
Apprécier des modes de création contemporains et actuels.
Appliquer une méthode propre à l’histoire de l’art.
Les ressources et artistes présentés ici ont été évoqués par l'artiste Hannah Claus, invitée du Collectif des commissaires autochtones. La formation offerte au Cégep de l'Outaouais a permis de se questionner sur les principes de la mise en scène et présentation post-coloniale et le travail. Voir le travail de l'artiste Jeff Thomas sur ces thèmes et expériences.
Expliquer les caractéristiques essentielles
d’un domaine en arts, lettres et communication. 054Q
COURS : ART ET MYTHOLOGIES 520-1CH-HU | ART ACTUEL - 520-2C2-HU | Histoire de l’art - 520-11A-HU Enseignant : Thomas Grondin, Cégep de l'outaouais
recherche en cours au Collège maisonneuve : louise lachapelle et Shan dak Puana (Jeanne d’Arc Vollant)coresponsables de l’équipe Mamu minu-tutamutau.
«Mamu minu-tutamutau est une démarche créative de recherche, d’action, de formation et d’échange qui pose la question : « Comment bien faire ensemble ? » du point de vue des différents partenaires d’une relation de collaboration. Cette démarche s’inscrit dans une perspective de décolonisation et de démocratisation de la relation de recherche, principalement entre Autochtones et Allochtones.»
Source : https://mamuminututamutau.wordpress.com
Alan Michelson Two Rows II 2005 — TwoRow II, 2005 // Four-channel video with sound 13:05 minutes // 108 × 576 inchesA monumental, panoramic video installation of the two banks of the Grand River, which divides Six Nations Reserve from non-native townships in Ontario. The design is a synthesis of two sources: moving panoramas and the Two Row, an historic Iroquois wampum belt. Woven of purple and white shell beads, the belt signified—through two purple rows alternating with three white rows—an early treaty of respectful coexistence between the Natives and Europeans. The rows symbolized the parallel paths of an Iroquois canoe and a European ship, and their respective laws and customs, which were to remain parallel and inviolate. A sound track combining a Canadian cruise boat captain’s official narrative on the river with Native elder narratives complete the work.»
Art autochtone — Art autochtone dans la collection d'art indigène La collection d’art indigène du Musée des beaux-arts du Canada réunit des œuvres d’artistes métis, inuits et des Premières nations, en particulier des créations contemporaines datant de 1980 jusqu’à aujourd’hui. Le Musée enrichit sa collection d’œuvres d’artistes autochtones depuis le début du XXe siècle.
Artiste Jeff Thomas - Exposition Que les enfants devenus ? — Where Are The Children?Healing The Legacy Of Residential Schools“Symbols of Power and Stability”For thousands of years, indigenous people had flourished on this continent, imparting to their children—from generation to generation—a great sense of respect for their environment, their communities, and their families. The arrival of Europeans slowly began to erode the integrity and strength of Indigenous cultures. Government and church institutions justified taking indigenous children away to residential schools by asserting that their families were not capable of taking proper care of their children.Indians were “savages” and needed to be “civilized” by forced assimilation. The reality is that these children did not enter these schools uneducated. The objects I have selected from the Glenbow’s extensive indigenous collection are symbols of the rich knowledge and cultures that existed in indigenous communities. They are symbols of what was lost when the children passed through the residential school doors.
Baumgarten - Monument for the Native Peoples of Ontario — «It starts in 1984, when the gallery invited the German artist Lothar Baumgarten to make a work for the space. His piece, Monument for the Native People of Ontario , was an elegiac, nostalgic homage to eight aboriginal nations of the province, festooning Walker Court with their names in large Roman text...»
Benjamin West - La mort du général Wolfe, 1770 — La mort du général Wolfe, 1770 Benjamin West États-Unis, Grande-Bretagne, 1738 - 1820 huile sur toile 152,6 x 214,5 cm Transfert des Oeuvres canadiennes commémoratives de la guerre, 1921 (Don du 2e duc de Westminster, Angleterre, 1918) Musée des beaux-arts du Canada (nº 8007)
Carl Beam — Carl Beam R.C.A. (May 24, 1943 – July 30, 2005), born Carl Edward Migwans, made Canadian art history as the first artist of Native Ancestry (Ojibwe), to have his work purchased by the National Gallery of Canada as Contemporary Art.
Collectif des commissaires autochtones (ACC/CCA) — The Aboriginal Curatorial Collective / Collectif des commissaires autochtones (ACC/CCA) is a national arts service organization that supports, promotes and advocates on behalf of Canadian and international Aboriginal curators, critics, artists and representatives of arts and cultural organizations. The ACC/CCA develops and disseminates curatorial practices, innovative research and critical discourses on Aboriginal arts and culture. By fostering collaboration and exchange the ACC/CCA builds an equitable space for the Aboriginal intellectual and artistic community.
Conseil des arts du Canada — Art autochtone contemporain
Eugene DelaCroix - Natchez — The Natchez, 1835 Eugène Delacroix (French, 1798–1863) Oil on canvas; 35 1/2 x 46 in. (90.2 x 116.8 cm) Signed (lower right): EugDelacroix Purchase, Gifts of George N. and Helen M. Richard and Mr. and Mrs. Charles S. McVeigh and Bequest of Emma A. Sheafer, by exchange, 1989 (1989.328) SEE COMPLETE RECORD . In 1822, the twenty-four-year-old Delacroix noted that he wished to paint characters from Chateaubriand's novel Atala, ou les amours des deux sauvages dans le désert. He began the painting, but abandoned it until the mid-1830s, when he resumed work on it in order to exhibit it at the Paris Salon of 1835. For the Salon catalogue, Delacroix explained the scene: "Fleeing the massacre of their tribe, two young savages traveled up the Meschacébé ([Mississippi River]. During the voyage, the young woman was seized by labor pains. The moment is that when the father holds the newborn in his hands, and both regard him tenderly."
Frank Shabageget - Communities II — «Communities II is an ongoing art piece. Written on a large tarpaper surface (9′ x 16′) are the names of 688 Aboriginal, Inuit, and Metis reserves, communities and bands. The drawing is completed on tarpaper, because the current list is temporary, and will always need continuous updating.»
Giovanni Tiepolo - Representation de l'Amérique - 1752-1753 — Apollo and the Continents (America, left-hand side) by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, 1752-1753
HAUDENOSAUNEE CONFEDERACY — «An excellent resource for students and teachers alike, this website shares cultural information in historical and contemporary contexts through the eyes of the Haudenosaunee. The website will provide a voice for the Haudenosaunee people in new media while providing engaging information to Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal audiences. The Haudenosaunee welcome you as you explore the unique culture held close to the hearts of their people.»
Isuma TV — «Welcome to the new IsumaTV Home Page. Stay tuned as the pages unfold with a new design and new capacity. Over the next couple of weeks across our platform.»
Jeff Thomas - A Study of Indian-ness — «I am an urban-Iroquois, born in the city of Buffalo, New York in 1956. My parents and grandparents were born at the Six Nations reserve, near Brantford, Ontario and left the reserve to find work in the city. You won't find a definition for 'urban Iroquois' in any dictionary or anthropological publication--it is this absence that informs my work as a photo-based artist, researcher, independent curator, cultural analyst and public speaker. My study of Indian-ness seeks to create an image bank of my urban-Iroquois experience, as well as re-contextualize historical images of First Nations people for a contemporary audience. Ultimately, I want to dismantle long entrenched stereotypes and inappropriate caricatures of First Nations people.»
Keesic Douglas - Vanishing Trace — «Keesic Douglas is an Ojibway artist from the Mnjikaning First Nation in central Ontario, Canada. He specializes in the mediums of photography and video. His work has been exhibited both across Canada and internationally. Keesic focuses on sharing his unique perspective based on his Aboriginal heritage in his photo and video work. In 2009 his video War Pony screened at the Berlin International Film Festival in Germany. He recently exhibited a solo show at the Urban Shaman Gallery in Winnipeg Manitoba of recent new Landscape photographic works as well as photo and video installation exploring the history of the Hudson’s Bay Points blanket. In the spring of 2011, Keesic was in a two person show with a Mexican photographer that showed in Sudbury Ontario and San Cristobal in Chiapas Mexico. Keesic graduated with a BFA from OCAD in 2008 where he won the medal for photography and completed his MFA at UBC in Vancouver BC in 2010.»
Ken Maracle - «How long these words will last» — «This documentary profiles Ken Maracle - a Cayuga man from Six Nations of the Grand River. Ken is one of the few remaining craftsmen still practicing the traditional art of Wampum - which consists of beaded strings woven into a belt. First used to commemorate the Great Law of Peace, (the founding constitution of the Haudenosaunee-otherwise known as Six Nations), Wampum belts were later adopted to record agreements between nations or to document events. The symbolic language of the belts was understood by all the Nations, irregardless of the variations in spoken dialects. This film explores the meaning behind the first Wampum belt that was used to document the Haudensaunee treaty with the Dutch in 1613, and how this 'Wampum language' has been lost in the haze of the last five centuries. The power of the word, spoken or symbolized, resonates through the past to remind us of just how much we have forgotten.»
Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun — Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun, graduated from the Emily Carr School of Art and Design in 1983 with an honours degree in painting. Yuxweluptun's strategy is to document and promote change in contemporary Indigenous history in large-scale paintings (from 54.2 x 34.7cm to 233.7 x 200.7cm), using Coast Salish cosmology, Northwest Coast formal design elements, and the Western landscape tradition. His painted works explore political, environmental, and cultural issues.
Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun — «awrence Paul Yuxweluptun, graduated from the Emily Carr School of Art and Design in 1983 with an honours degree in painting. Yuxweluptun's strategy is to document and promote change in contemporary Indigenous history in large-scale paintings (from 54.2 x 34.7cm to 233.7 x 200.7cm), using Coast Salish cosmology, Northwest Coast formal design elements, and the Western landscape tradition. His painted works explore political, environmental, and cultural issues. His personal and socio-political experiences enhance this practice of documentation. Yuxweluptun's work has been included in numerous international group and solo exhibitions, such as INDIGENA: Contemporary Native Perspectives in 1992. He was the recipient of the Vancouver Institute for the Visual Arts (VIVA) award in 1998.»
Les enfants perdus - Dalhya Newashish — Dalhya Newashish est originaire de Wemotaci, une communauté atikamekw située en Mauricie. «Les enfants perdus» est son premier film, réalisé à l’été 2007 grâce au projet Wapikoni mobile. Il a été présenté au Festival du nouveau cinéma à Montréal, lors du lancement de la compilation Wapikoni mobile en octobre 2007 ainsi qu’au Festival du film francophone 2007 au Yukon.
Les traités de Niagara - Wampums - 1764 — Dr. Lynn Gelh : «It was in the year 1764 when the Treaty at Niagara took place. This event served to ratify the 1763 Royal Proclamation, commonly thought of as Canada’s first constitutional document. In actuality, the 1763 Royal Proclamation is only one of Canada’s first constitutional documents. Because successive governments of Canada have promoted a particular version of history – a fiction of two founding nations – the broader Canadian public may be unaware of the significant roles Indigenous Nations held in Canada’s creation.»
Marcia Crosby "The Construction of the Imaginary Indian" — I AM GOING TO SPEAK ABOUT what seems to be a recent phenomenon in the arts and social sciences - the embracing of udifference." As a component of postmodernism, difference may take the form of the many voices that struggle against the hegemony of the European "master narrative." In the face of popular culture and an ever-shrinking globe, it is also a saleable commodity.'
Nadya Kwandibens — Nadya Kwandibens est Anishinaabe et francophone de la première nation de Northwest Angle (réserve No 37), en Ontario. Elle est établie à Toronto, et la plus grande partie de son travail porte sur l’identité des Autochtones établis en zones urbaines, notamment sa très populaire série de portraits photographiques, Concrete Indian. « Je me souviens que mon père m’avait mentionné une fois ce surnom donné par les anciens aux Autochtones qui déménageaient vers la ville. Il m'a dit qu’ils les appelaient Concrete Indians (Indiens du béton). » Nadya Kwandibens espère que sa photographie contribueront à changer la façon dont les Autochtones sont perçus dans les médias. « Si vous aviez vu comment les médias parlaient des Autochtones, ils donnaient toujours une impression négative. Et c’est ce qui m’a fait réfléchir : je pouvais faire quelque chose en tant qu’artiste. » (Source : radio-canada, 8e feu)
Par-delà le vrai et le faux ? Les authenticités factices d’Edward S. Curtis et leur réception — «Entre 1896 et 1930, Edward Sheriff Curtis photographie quelque quatre-vingts peuples amérindiens et publie 2 228 photogravures dans sa grande encyclopédie en vingt volumes, The North American Indian (1907-1930) – œuvre gigantesque mais inclassable, associant des photogravures très ouvragées à des milliers de pages de texte ethnographique. D’abord connu pour ses portraits de la bourgeoisie locale de Seattle, Edward Curtis réalise sa vaste saga pictorialiste du monde amérindien dans le contexte des politiques assimilationnistes menées par le gouvernement fédéral2.»
Photo-based Artist & Independent Curator — «I am an urban-Iroquois. You won't find a definition for 'urban Iroquois' in any dictionary or anthropological publication - it is this absence that informs my work as a photo-based artist, researcher, independent curator, cultural analyst and public speaker. My study of Indian-ness seeks to create an image bank of my urban-Iroquois experience, as well as re-contextualize historical images of First Nations people for a contemporary audience.»
Rebecca Belmore — «A blanket made of beads. A simple concept, but one fraught with Canadian colonial history. But don’t tell Rebecca Belmore that, because she’s keeping that on the downlow.Belmore, a 53-year-old Anishinaabekwe artist from Sioux Lookout, Ont., has been chosen to create a large work of original art for the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in Winnipeg.This will be one of 10 commissioned original artworks that are intended to help connect museum visitors with human rights issues.»
Rebecca Belmore — «Title: Wana-na-wang-ong Date: 1993 Medium: Installation - lichen, moss, roots, paint, sand Location: Contemporary Art Gallery Vancouver, British Columbia "The central component of Wana-na-wang-ong is comprised of two curved suspended panels, each suggesting the horizontal configuration of a landscape painting. As a primary formal feature, the interwoven spruce roots also provide the supportive framework, or skeleton, for the lichen and peat moss. Suspended from the ceiling, and not touching the floor, the panels float in a space of ambiguity that questions the limitations of such binary oppositions as permanence/ impermanence; life/death; survival/resistance; positive/negative; inside/outside; art/craft This "magical state of suspension" celebrates Belmore's freedom from the strict confines of these notions, and metaphorically alludes to the dynamic energies of oppositional forces implied in the tensions and balances of life." Lee-Ann Martin (Martin, Lee-Ann. The Language of Place. British Columbia: Contemporary Art Gallery, 1993.)»
Robert Houle, Manito-Waban, 1989 — «There is a spiritual place in Manitoba known as the Narrows of Lake Manitoba where the water beating against the resonant limestone cliff and pounding along the pebbled shore creates the sound "ke-mishomis-na-ug" (literally, "our ancestors") believed to be the voice of Manitou. It was and still is a sacred place, a power place whose hierophantic messages compel Saulteaux who continue to live nearby to offer tobacco; and many travel to it seeking renewal, as a Muslim will travel to Mecca. »
Robert Houle - 7 Grandfathers — «The Algonquin, Mississauga, Nippissing, Ojibwe, Odawa, Potawatomi and Saulteaux Nations call the Great Lakes basin home. The Art Gallery of Ontario, in mounting Before and after the Horizon: Anishinaabe Artists of the Great Lakes has produced a exhibition of Anishinaabe art that celebrates the connection of these Nations to their traditional Territory .»
Shelley Niro - The Shirt — This video was made as the USA began their invasion of Iraq. Using the history of Native North Americans as a parallel, people who would be living their normal lives will suddenly find themselves in a state of chaos. The main character is played by well known artist Hulleah Tsinhnahjinnie. It was filmed in the suburbs of Irvine California, along the Grand River and around Niagara Falls. The soundtrack is by Elizabeth Hill, a resident of Six Nations Reserve.
Sonny Assu - — http://www.sonnyassu.com/pages/curriculum-vitae http://www.sonnyassu.com/images/iconsume
TERRE, ESPRIT, POUVOIR : LES PREMIÈRES NATIONS AU MUSÉE DES BEAUX-ARTS DU CANADA — Nemiroff, Diana et Houle, Robert et Townsend-Gault, Charlotte et Durham, Jimmie et Heap of Birds, Hachivi Edgar et Lavadour, James et Yuxweluptun, Lawrence Paul. Terre, esprit, pouvoir : Les Premières Nations au Musée des beaux-arts du Canada. Ottawa, Ont.: Musée des beaux-arts du Canada / National Gallery of Canada, 1992.
Wapikoni Mobile — La mobilité fait partie intégrante de l’approche du Wapikoni : nous « roulons vers » les jeunes des communautés autochtones pour leur offrir des ateliers pratiques adaptés à leur réalité et à leur culture. UNE MÉTHODOLOGIE QUI DÉVELOPPE L’ESTIME DE SOI, LES COMPÉTENCES ET LA RÉSILIENCE Les jeunes participent à des ateliers pratiques sur le terrain selon une méthode pédagogique élaborée par la cinéaste Manon Barbeau en collaboration avec des professionnels du cinéma: « apprendre en faisant».